This is both an intensive literature-based reading seminar, as well as an examination of real dialogue systems in the field. We will review the field from the perspective of formal, pragmatic, and semantic approaches to discourse and dialogue modeling, and what theories are most descriptive and best explain the known data. We also review the NLP and AI literature on dialogue between humans as well as human-computer and human-robot dialogues. The recent move towards situated and contextualized interactions with computer agents will be a focus, as we examine how to handle the “situated grounding” of language, gesture, and action in interactions between humans and between humans and computers. Assignments will be reading reviews, and topic presentations; system reviews and critiques; and a final paper or programming project.
One major focus of the course will be on the challenges involved in developing a multimodal semantics for human-robot interactions. Unlike human-computer (HC) interactive agents (e.g., chatbots or personal digital assistants), human-robot interaction (HRI) inherently requires multiple modalities. Robotic agents are embodied and situated which affords robots the ability to affect the real world, but also requires them to have accurate and robust interpretive capabilities for multiple input modalities, which must run in real time. In addition, a robot must be able to communicate with its human interlocutors using all communicative modalities humans may use, including natural language, body language, gesture, demonstrated action, etc. The very near future of communicative interactions with computational agents and robots will be not be limited to speech. It will be inherently multimodal, drawing on spoken and typed language, haptic input from pads, keys, and sensors, head and hand gestures from image and video RGBD captures, and contextualized and situational awareness from registering local actions in the environments. Researchers in each of these modalities have traditionally needed their own separate control language or manager for navigating a conversation or dialogue. When communications become multimodal in nature, however, such dialogue managers are no longer rich enough to model the context and interaction. Each modality in operation provides an orthogonal angle through which to probe the computational model of the other modalities, including the behaviors and communicative capabilities afforded by each. Through studying and modeling the semantics of the communication, conversational capabilities with computers will be enormously enhanced by providing representations for the common ground between human and computer. We will discuss the semantics of actions and object affordances and the impact such knowledge has on reasoning in HRI. While the dynamic semantics of epistemic updating in discourse has been extensively modeled, there has been less development of integrated models of the dynamics of actions and affordances in cooperative or goal-directed discourse. We present a dynamic semantics of the language, VoxML, to model both HC and HR interactions by creating multimodal simulations of both the communicative content and the agents’ common ground. A multimodal simulation is an embodied 3D virtual realization of both the situational environment and the co-situated agents, as well as the most salient content denoted by communicative acts in a discourse. VoxML provides a representation for the situated grounding of expressions between individuals involved in a communicative exchange. It does this by encoding objects with rich semantic typing and action affordances, and actions themselves as multimodal programs, enabling contextually salient inferences and decisions in the environment. These affordances provide the semantic scaffold on which to build abstract control and dialogue management strategies for multiple modalities.